| ［Purposes］ This paper aims to promote the research, reform, and practice of open peer review of scientific journals in China. ［Methods］ We compared the open peer review with the traditional blind peer review, and discussed the advantages of open peer review. ［Findings］ The process of open peer review of scientific journals has the characteristics of transparency, openness, fairness, and impartiality, flattens the hierarchical nature of peer review systems, speeds up the propagation of the journal contents, wins academic reputation and respect for reviewers, improves the quality of journal articles, attracts more risk taking and innovative authors, and creates a free public academic research environment. ［Conclusions］ Open peer review of scientific journals has brought a great deal of benefits to authors, reviewers, scientific journals, readers, and scholarly communities. Scientific journals should update the concept and try to explore open peer review.